The Mausoleum of Tyurabek Khanum

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The Mausoleum of Tyurabek Khanum
The Mausoleum of Tyurabek Khanum The Mausoleum of Tyurabek Khanum The Mausoleum of Tyurabek Khanum The Mausoleum of Tyurabek Khanum The Mausoleum of Tyurabek Khanum The Mausoleum of Tyurabek Khanum

From the middle of the XIV century, when the Khorezm achieved almost complete autonomy in Urgench rights of local feudal the dynasty of Kungrad Sufis, which is associated with the world-renowned building Urgench, known as the mausoleum Tyurabek Khanum.
Attempts of Khorezm Sufidov pursue an independent policy led to the seizure of Timur Khorezm, and in 1372 the conqueror exercises one after another series of campaigns to Khorezm.
In connection with the military situation from this time construction in Urgench freezes. Consequently, an unprecedented mausoleum could be built before - at the time of the brilliant development of architecture during the reign of Timur Qutlugh, his wife or soon after. This fact is confirmed by the historical evidence of Ibn Battuta, who in his description of Urgench 1330s mentions honako Tyurabek Khanum and honako Nadzhimetdin Kubra. Obviously, both of these buildings were of special interest to the traveler, if he called them together with the cathedral mosque and madrassa.
Naturally, there is a desire to consider a grand of the mausoleum building Tyurabek Khanum with hujras (keley) at the entrance as the very honako wrote about Ibn Battuta. This building could later be adapted for the burial of the Tyurabek Khanum and become a dynastic burial place Sufidov.
These considerations are confirmed quite unusual for Central Asian architecture composition of the building, especially his three-part plan, built along the major axis. For high and deep portal - a small domed room with entrance to the small hujras (left), on the spiral staircase (right) and a vast hexagonal hall of about 100 square meters. m (right). Next on the same axis for the hall, there was a small domed outbuilding, now badly damaged. In the years 1958-1960 in the main hall opened the crypt with burials, indicating that the building served as the mausoleum. Although the combination of the actual of the mausoleum with a receiver (memorial) room - ziarathanoy and takes place in the Muslim world, but this three-chamber mausoleum with a clear axial construction in the history of Central Asian architecture is unique.
Thus, if we identify an existing building with honako Tyurabek Khanum wrote about Ibn Battuta, while its construction is determined by the thirties of the XIV century. However, the attribution of the building as a shrine Sufidov date it allows middle of the XIV century. In both cases it is clear that this mausoleum characterizes amazing creativity rise architecture in Urgench predtimurovsky period.
Building inside decided to form a hexagonal prism, in the face of which cut deeply arched niches with arched window openings. Outside, on the bulk of the dodecahedron, are also deep niches. On the south side is tall and very slender in its proportions portal. In its upper part is made constructive gallery, providing its spatial stability.
Once the building was crowned by a blue tent, rises on a high drum, decorated with mosaic hexagon in a clear frame of terracotta. Tent collapsed, and he was only a small fragment of the east side, supported by the surviving fragments of the cornice with gorgeous tiled stalactites.
Visible external dome of the mausoleum with the remains of the brick edges to maintain the tent - protective. The inner surface of the dome is a precious decoration in the form of a continuous mosaic hat finest work. Stalactite and arched sails twelve- and dvadtsatichetyrehgrannikov create constructive and decorative logical transition from the hexagonal prism base of the support ring lancet dome. Mosaic stalactites, domes and panels on the sides of the drum is better preserved than the underlying mosaic decoration. Polished natural pinkish-yellow brick skillfully used for calculations formoopredelyayuschih lines - corners and edges of walls, portal and dividing strips of mosaic frames.
Now from ornamental walls and portal preserved only in fragments of mosaic strips, and yet has not lost its splendor and power of artistic influence. Brilliant quality of the building, decorative techniques and its magnificent mosaic is characterized by extremely high art of Khorezm builders and decorators of the XIV century, which failed to beat anyone anywhere in the whole of Central Asia later time.
Especially gorgeous mosaic composition pattern dome diameter of about 12 meters in the dome laid the foundation ornament pattern weaving nine- and five-pointed stars, combines natural variations and decreasing in size to the zenith of the dome.
Center of the dome reveals precious core in the form of a twelve lush flower inscribed in a ray of twenty-star. Blue, white, turquoise, black, green, yellow, red and brown and gold create an unparalleled mosaic pattern of the dome.
Color variety due to the intricacies of drawing and the general background of the blue polychrome harmony and gives integrity, as the dome and cupola drum, cut twelve lancet windows.
Mausoleum attaches great importance precisely because this building Mongol Urgench is the highest measure of art of great artists of the famous school of decorative Urgench. Masters exported from Urgench Timur, his art has shown in some buildings of his empire, combining skill with new techniques and local operating conditions. But mausoleum Tyurabek Khanum - Sufidov - this original sample in which the builders and decorators with extraordinary skill and intelligence combined constructive form with rich decoration without violating tectonics facilities.
In conclusion, we emphasize that in Urgench type of tent structures was developed back in the pre-Mongol period and lasted until the invasion of Timur. Another interesting fact is that the methods of processing of architectural monuments of the Mongol period, specific to the external parts of buildings, and used in, thus giving the interior a special monumentality and grandeur.
Even after a century, the building of the mausoleum never ceases to amaze travelers precision molds and beauty decoration.

Address & Contacts:

Dashoguz region, Koneurgech